Here we will discuss what is inside a computer? Inside the computer consists of different components and if you look inside of computer case then you will find it very complicated or something mysterious. My article will help you understand the basic terminology of inside a computer. A desktop computer is larger than a laptop in size but the essentials components of both laptops and computers are the same. There are card slots in the desktop computer where you can swap out cards while mostly laptop comes with integrated components.

Computer’s components fall into two categories: the brain and the guts. The brain of a computer includes all those components which are directly involved in the processing of data and the guts include those components which are useful but not directly involved in the processing of data.


It looks like a thin plate called the main circuit board. It holds CPU, memory, connectors for hard drives and optical drives provide connections to computer ports and expansion cards that control audio and video. The motherboard has sockets that let other components of a computer to communicate with each other. The size and shape of the motherboard are looking different if we compare the laptop and desktop computer’s motherboard. 



The central processing unit, also called the processor. it is located inside the computer case and on the motherboard. you can consider it the brain of the computer. So, all the command processing is controlled by CPU as you click on your mouse or you start an application. The shape of the CPU is a two-inch ceramic square with a silicon chip located on it, the size of the chip is of the thumbnail. CPU is installed on the motherboard, covered by heat sick. Heat sink help to absorb heat from the CPU. Processor speed is represented in megahertz, or millions of instructions per second; and gigahertz, or billions of instructions per second. if the speed of executing the instruction of a processor is faster then it means that the processor is faster. But here, I would say that the speed of a computer not only depends on a faster processor, its actual speed depends on many different components.

Central Processing Unit


Random access memory is short-term memory. When a computer performs some calculation then it stores its data temporarily in the RAM so that it uses it later in need. If your computer shuts down then the data stored in RAM disappears. If you avoid losing data then you have saved it, then the data is written to the hard drive. Megabytes or gigabytes is used to measure the capacity of RAM. If you have more RAM then you can run any application at the same time and you can increase the performance of your computer by adding more RAMs.

Random Access Memory


It is a secondary storage device and also called long-term memory. You can store all your files, docs, and software on the hard drive because here the data is not deleted after you turn your computer off. When you start using a file then data is copied from the hard drive onto the RAM and when you make changes to your files then it is copied back to the hard drive.
Hard disk drives are mostly used in desktop computers, it consists of two magnetic platters and the magnetic head is used to write data on it but now some computers use the solid-state drive, which is more reliable but expensive.

Hard-Drive Disk


It converts AC current into low voltage DC current for the internal components of a computer. It is located at the back of the computer. The power supply connects to the motherboard through the power cable and also connects to the other parts of the computer.

Power Supply Unit


Expansion slots are present on the motherboard and various expansion cards are installed on these slots. New generations of the computer have already built-in expansion cards like a sound card, video card, network card, Bluetooth card. It is optional to add more cards in order to enhance the performance of computer and below are some common expansion cards:

Expansion Card
Expansion Card

Sound Card:

This card is used for the sound of computers like sound coming from speakers or headphones. You can update the sound card to enhance the quality of sound. Most motherboards have built-in sound cards.

Sound Card
Sound Card

Network Card:

This card lets computers to communicate over a network using the internet. These computers are connected through an Ethernet cable or wireless connection. Most the computers have integrated network card and a network card can also be added into the expansion slot.

Video Card:

What you see on the screen of the monitor is due to the video card. Many computers have already built-in GPU (Graphics Processing Unit). You can add extra video cards on expansion slot or update the existing video card if you play graphics-intensive games on your computer.

Bluetooth Card:

It is a technology for wireless communication and these slots are present on the motherboard or on the network card. The computer uses these ports to communicate with a wireless mouse, printer and scanner.

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7 Responses

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