Evolution of Computing
In 1836, a development was made on theoretical aspect of computer, the advent of Turing machine. Alan Turing, a professor of Cambridge University proposed this idea. This is only theoretical machine, completely simple but a complete a computing machine. This model helped many people to perform many theoretical experiments and approved and disapproved many things related to it, which resulted to get more and rapid progress in field of computing. Turing machine is a big contribution of Alan Turing but another contribution was the idea of during test. The purpose of this test was, if a computer passed this test, then this computer could think like a human being.The other milestone was the invention of vacuum tube in 1904, invented by John Fleming, an English Physicist. First electronic computer came with the help of vacuum tube. Electronic computer was far better than a mechanical or electro mechanical computer in term of speed. The first electronic computer was ABC, 1939, Attanasoff-Berry Computer, invented by a professor, John Attanasoff and his assistant, Clifford Berry. The most important thing about this computer, that it used binary number.The next event happened in 1943, Harvard Mark 1, by Howard Aiken. It was a large scale general purpose computer. This computer failed due to some reasons, it was electro-mechanical computer and at that time, the era of electronic computer was started. So electro computer was much faster than electro-mechanical computer. So, this computer became obsolete.The first very famous electro computer came in 1946, was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). This was the first large scale, electronic, digital, general purpose computer. It was built by John Mauchly and John Echert at the University of Pennsylvania. This was very complex machine with 150 kg weight and 150 kilowatt electricity consumption.The birth of transistor created another event in the history of computer. Today‘s computer is based on transistor. Transistor was invented by Shockly Bardeen and Brattain at the bell lab in the US, in 1947. They got noble prize on this invention. Transistor replaced vacuum tube, transistor was more reliable, lower power consumption, very small in size and lower cost.Next invention was the floppy disk in 1950, at the imperial university of Japan by Yoshiro Nakamats, its right was given to IBM, which marketed floppy disk. The benefits of floppy disks, was to access the data faster as compared to magnet tape.In 1951, first commercial purpose was introduced. Before 1951, only specific task oriented computer was made. This computer was invented by Echert and Mauchly Computer Company, called UNIVAC 1.In 1952, Grace Hopper introduced compiler. A compiler is a computer program; instruction is given to it in a high level language. High language is a language understandable to a human. Compiler takes high instruction in high level language in convert it into low level language.The idea of internet was presented by ARPANET in 1969. He was in US defense to form a big network of small networks across the institute. World first micro processor was invented by Ted Hoff in 1971, Intel 4004. It was very device in size having thousands of transistors. The first personal computer was Altair 8800, invented in 1975. This computer was based on intel 8080 microprocessor with 256 bytes memory. Personal computer category started in 1975. First commercial super computer was introduced in 1976 called Cray 1. Super computer is the most power machine of the time by using state of the art technology. This computer is used to perform super complex task like prediction of weather, destruction of atomic bomb. Super computer could do million of operation in a second but today super computer can do billions of operations in a second.In 1981, the most important event took place in the history of computer, when computer became so popular. This was happened due to the production of IBM PC with MS DOS operating system. Today 95% of computer descended from that event.Apple Macintosh computer was introduced by Apple in 1984, which was very user friendly and a lot different from other system at that time.In 1989, Tim Berners Lee introduced World Wide Web. His purpose was to introduce such application that was helpful to share documents with their colleagues.The next event took place in 1997, when computer beaten a world famous player in a chess match and after this event, the concept that a computer can think like a human, was flourished.