Android is an operating system, introduced for touch mobiles and developed by Google. Android is a modified form of Linux kernel and some other open source software. Google has also developed android for other system like android of TV, android for wrist watches, android for car etc. some variants of android are also used in digital cameras, game consoles.

Android was first commercially launched in 2008 and the latest version is Android 9 Pie. Some Google developed software also called GMS (Google Mobile Services) is associated with android and come pre-installed in mobiles such as Google Play or application store, Google chrome and Google search app.

Android is the most famous and best-selling operating system world-wide. It has around about over 2 billion of active users and contains about 2.6 million of app in play store.


Four friends came together and announced a project in 2003, developing an operating system for digital cameras, later the company realized that market of digital cameras was not big enough then they diverted their efforts to handset operating system. In 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. and its key employee also joined Google. This team developed a mobile device platform based on Linux kernel. First they developed a prototype for a physical QWERTY keyboard but the arrival of touch-screen mobile, Google changed it Android specification documents which stated that “Touchscreens will be supported”.

So the first commercially android touch mobile introduced, was HTC T-Mobile G1, in 2008. Google introduced its nexus series of devices in 2010. Google made partnership with different device manufacturers in order to produce new versions of android and devices; this played a very success role in history of android.

Android user interface is mainly depending on direct manipulation and its response is quick, providing vibrations capabilities to the users. There are some internal hardware such as proximity sensors, gyroscopes, and accelerometers, which becomes active using some applications to add more actions to the users, adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depends how the device is oriented.

Android homescreen is composed of app icons and widgets, app icons is linked with applications and widgets are live and updating time to time such weather forecast, etc. it is made up of many pages and can switch off between different pages.

Top of the screen have a bar showing the connectivity and information of the device and the status bar can be pulled down which show display information or updates.


App or applications are used to increase the functionality of devices and these apps are developed using software development kit or SDK and using different languages, most commonly java is used for the development. There are others languages which also support android apps like C/C++, Go language. Google also introduce Kotlin language for development of android app.

SDK is a complete set of development tools like debugger, software libraries, documentation and simple code etc. Google supported Eclipse which was integrated development environment and it used android development tools. Later on, in 2014 Google introduced Android studio based on intellij IDEA, it is primarily IDE for the development of android apps.

There are millions of third party applications available on play stores and uses can download it. Google play store is a primary store of android and it is licensed under the Google mobile service software.


Android main hardware platform is ARM with x86 and x86-64 architecture. In 2012, Intel processor was launched with x64 architecture. The requirements for android depends on its versions, means android 7.1 requires 2 GB ram while android 4.4 requires support of 512 MB ram. Android includes many optional hardware components such cameras, touch screen, proximity sensors, GPS, orientation sensors, etc.

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